1) The word "Psyche" meaning soul, and "ology" meaning to study. To study the soul
2) Structuralism- Utilized analytic introspection “looking within” a procedure aimed at analyzing the mental experience into three basic mental elements: images, feelings, and sensations. Demise of structuralism owed more to its reliance on introspection, which limited it to the study of conscious mental experience in relatively intelligent, adult human beings with strong verbal skills
3) Functionalism- Functionalists broadened the range of subject to include animals, children, mentally ill. Applied research to everyday life.
4) Behavioral- John Watson. focused on observable behavior, overt behavior which can be recorded and subjected to verification. Stimulus – Response.
5) Psychoanalytical- Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) emphasized the importance of the unconscious/cause of behavior.
6) Gestalt- “form or shape” to underscore his belief that we perceive wholes rather than combinations of individual elements. The whole is different/more than the sum of its parts. Phi phenomenon – apparent motion caused by the presentation of different visual stimuli in raid succession.
7) Humanistic- Humans have free will. viewpoint that hold that the proper subject matter of psychology is the individuals subjective mental experience of the world.
8) Cognitive- favors the study of how the mind organizes perceptions “schemas”, processes information and interprets experience.
9) Biological- examines how brain process and other bodily functions regulate behavior
10) Social/Cultural- Examines how the social environment and cultural learning influence our behavior and feelings.
Behavioral – received positive reinforcement for being cruel and violent – gain attention. Psychoanalytic – repressed hostility over the years that erupted from unconscious mind. Humanistic – blocked by parental domination from pursue self-actualization – identify with outcast anti-social means of express anger.
Cognitive – develop irrational patterns of beliefs about teachers and students – cause to lash out.
Biopsychologist – brain disorder- psych disorder. Social/Cultural – media/television promote violence resulting in acting out.
10) Scientific Method- a source of knowledge based on the assumption that knowledge comes from the objective, systematic observation and measurement of particular variables and event they affect.
Steps in the Scientific Method
1) Initial Observation or Questions
2. Gather Information and Form Hypothesis
3. Test Hypothesis (Conduct Research)
4. Analyze Data
5. Further Research and Theory BuildingNew Hypotheses Derived from Theory
6. New Hypotheses Derived from Theory
11) Goals of scientific research:
Description – overcome “common sense” concerns with development of operational definitions Prediction-predict the outcome
Control – control is an essential ingredient in the conduct of experiments
Modification – ultimate goal of psychology
12) Methods of scientific research- Descriptive research involves the recording of behaviors that have been observed systematically. case studies
Psychological Testing- procedure assuring that a test is administered and scored in a consistent manner
archival research-the systematic examination of collections of letters, manuscripts, tape recordings, or other records.
Correlational research refers to the degree of relationship between two or more variables.
A variable is an event, behavior, condition, or characteristic that has two or more values. A positive correlation between two variables indicates that they tend to change values in the same direction. A negative correlation between two variables indicates that they tend to change values in opposite directions, ex. ages and vision, obesity and exercise. Correlation does not imply causation.
13) Validity and Reliability- Internal validity is the extent to which the changes in a dependent variable can be attributed to one or more indep. variables. External validity is the extent to which the results of a research study can be generalized to other people, animals, or settings.
14) Experimental research involved the manipulation of one or more variables
15) Independent variable- is manipulated by experimenter to determine its effect on another, dependent , variable
Dependent variable- shows the effect of the indep. var.
16- Correlational research refers to the degree of relationship between two or more variables. A variable is an event, behavior, condition, or characteristic that has two or more values. A positive correlation between two variables indicates that they tend to change values in the same direction. A negative correlation between two variables indicates that they tend to change values in opposite directions, ex. ages and vision, obesity and exercise. Correlation does not imply causation.
17) Confounding variable- a variable whose unwanted effect on the dep. variable might be confused with that of the indep. variable
18) Heritability Coefficient- refers to the proportion of variability in a trait across a population attributable to genetic differences among members of the population. Heritability values range from 0.0 to 1.0. Family studies focus on twin studies, adoption studies, studies of identical twins reared apart.
19) The central nervous system comprises the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system conveys sensory information to the central nervous system and motor commands from the central nervous system to the skeletal muscles and internal organs.
20) Sensory neurons send messages from the sensory receptors to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Motor neurons send messages to the glands, the cardiac muscle, and the skeletal muscles, as well as the smooth muscles of the arteries, small intestine, and other internal organs. Interneurons which far outnumber sensory and motor neurons, perform connective or associative functions within the nervous system. Interneurons makes possible the complexity of our higher mental functions
21) Brain structures: Brain Stem
Medulla- regulates breathing, heart rate and other life functions
Pons- regulates sleep-wake cycle. A blow to the pons causes unconsciousness
Cerebellum- controls timing of well-learned activities
Thalamus- a sensory relay station for taste, body, visual, and auditory sensations
Hypothalamus- helps regulate aspects of motivation and emotion including eating, drinking, sexual response, stress response and body temperature.
Amygdala- evaluates immediate environment for feelings of fear, anger and relief.
Hippocampus- contributes to the formation of memories.
Frontal lobe- motor control and higher mental processes
Parietal lobe- processes bodily sensations and perceiving spatial relations
Temporal lobe- processes hearing
Occipital lobe- processes vision
Corpus Collosum- neural bridge that acts as communication link between the right and left hemispheres.
Dopamine- elevated level of dopamine activity are found in the serious psychological disorder called schizophrenia.
Norepinephrine – a low level associated with depressed
Serotonin – low levels associated with increased depression. Drugs that boost the level of serotonin in the brain called SSRIs.
23) Sensation – the process that detects stimuli from the body or surroundings.
Perception – the process that organizes sensations into meaningful patterns.
24) Absolute Threshold- the lower the absolute threshold, the greater the sensitivity. The absolute threshold is also affected by factors other than the intensity of the stimulus. Single-detection theory states that the detection of a stimulus depend on both the intensity of the stimulus and the physical and psychological state of the individual. Subliminal perception is the unconscious perception of stimuli that are too weak to exceed the absolute threshold for detection. The minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected is called the difference threshold.
25) Weber’s law states that the amount of change in stimulation needed to produce a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the original stimulus.
26) Sensory adaptation is the tendnency of the senosry receptors to respond less and less to a constant stimulus. Ex: water cold.
27) Explanation of sleep-Circadian Rhythms are 24 hour cycles of physiological changes. They are governed by the hypothalamus suprachiasmatic nucleus which regulates the secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland.
REM sleep is the stage of sleep associated with rapid eye movements, an active brain-wave pattern, and vivid dreams. While you are in REM sleep, your heart rate, respiration rate, and brain-wave frequency increase, making you appear to be awake.
NREM sleep is the stages of sleep not associated with rapid eye movements and marked by relatively little dreaming.
The Functions of Sleep 1) restoration model – sleep recharges our run-down bodies and allows us to recover from physical and mental fatigue.
2) evolutionary/circadian sleep models – sleep’s main purpose is to increase a species’ chances of survival in relation to its environmental demands
3) memory consolidation – REM sleep strengthens neural circuits involved in remembering important information or experience that we encounter during the day.
Insomnia- chronic difficulty in falling or staying asleep.
Sleep Apnea- condition in which a person awakens repeatedly in order to breathe.
Narcolepsy is a condition in which an awake person suffers from repeated, sudden, and irresistible REM sleep attacks.
Purpose of Dreams :
Dreaming as Wish Fulfillment(Sigmond Freud). Freud claimed that dreams function as the “royal road to the unconscious” by serving as safe outlets for unconscious sexual or aggressive impulses that we cannot act on while we are awake because of cultural prohibitions against them
Dreaming as Problem Solving
Dreaming as an Aid to Memory
28) Hypnosis- is an induced state of consciousness in persons
responds to suggestions by another person for alterations in in perception, thinking, and behavior.
29) Psychoactive Drugs are chemicals that induce changes in mood, thinking, perception, and behavior by affecting neuronal activity in the brain.
DEPRESSANTS include: Alcohol and barbituates which remove social inhibitions, relieve anxiety and promote sleep, impairs judgement and causes disorientation.
Inhaled depressants cause disorientaion and create a detached environment
Opiates induce a feeling of euphoria, relieve pain and induce sleep
STIMULANTS include Caffiene which stimulates alertness; Nicotine which relieves anxiety; Amphetamines which can cause paranoia; and cocaine which can cause euphoria and give overblown confidence.
HALLUCINOGENS include LSD which creates a sense of timelessness; and Cannabis which induce relaxation, removes social inhibitions, and interferes with memory.
ENTACTOGENS include MDE and MDMA which induce relaxation, positive moods, give a feeling of enhance well-being, and alters perception of time.
30) Myopia or nearsightedness, the lens focuses images of near objects on the retina
In hyperopia, or farsightedness, the lens focuses images of far objects on the retina
Two types of photoreceptors, rods and cones. Each eye has about 120 million rods, especially important in night vision and peripheral vision. Each eye has about 6 million cones, cones are especially important in color vision and detailed vision.
The axons of the ganglion cells form the optic nerves, which convey visual information to the brain.