THE SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY
1.) STRUCTURALISM (Wundt) Analytical introspection. Studies the mind by breaking it down into its basic components.
2.) FUNCTIONALISM (James) Studies the function of consciousness. Critisizes Structuralism. The mind is a stream that is not to be broken down into parts. Subjects were broadened to animals, children, the mentally ill, etc. Not just theories on adults.
3.) BEHAVIORISM (Watson) Observable behavior (Pavlov) injected optimism. Emphasis is on how the environment affects behavior.
4.) GESTALT (Wherheimer) "Form or shape" To underscore beliefe that we percieve wholes rather than a combination of individual elements.
Phi Phenomonon- Appears motion falls by presentation of different stumuli in rapid succession. (Christmas lights)
5.) PSYCHOANALYSIS (Freud, 1858- 1939) Studies unconscious causes of behavior. A majority of the mind is at an unconscious level. "Tip of the iceberg" theory, as most of an iceberg is underwater.