Jumping to Chapter 11 The Psychoanalytical Approach
Freud divided the mind into three levels. The conscious mind is merely, "the tip of the iceberg": representing only a tiny portion of the mind. Just below the conscious mind is the preconscious mind, which includes and assembles memories. The unconscious mind is the deepest and the bulk of the mind and contains memories that we cannot recall at will.
Repression is a defense mechanism that involves banishing threatening thoughts, feelings, and memories into the unconscious mind.
ID- in Freud's s theory, the part of the personality that contains inborn bioligical drives and that seeks immediate gratification. The Id obeys the pleasure prinicple most notably for sex and aggression.
EGO - in Freud's theory, the part of personality that helps an individual adapt to external reality by making compromises between the id, the superego, and the environment. The ego obeys the reality principle, directing us to express sexual and aggressive impulses in socially acceptable ways.
Superego - in Freud's theory, the part of the personality that acts as a moral guide, telling us what we should do and not do. To Freud, your personality is the outcome of the continual battle for dominance among the id, the ego, and the superego.
Defense mechanisms - in Freud's theory, a process that restorts reality to prevent the individual from being overwhelmed by anxiety. All defense mechanisms involve repression.
1. Regression: involves reverting to immature behaviors that have relieved anxiety in the past. Example: An adult temper tantrum
2. Rationalization: giving socially acceptable reasons for one's inappropriate behavior. Example: make bad grades but states the reason is having to work through college.
3. Displacement: the defense mechanism that involves expressing feelings toward a person who is less threatening than the person who is the true target of those feelings. Example: Hating your boss but taking it out on family members.
4. Projection: the defense mechanism that invovles attributing one's own undesirable feelings to other people. Example: a paranoid person uses projection to justify isolation and anger.
5. Reaction Formation: defense mechanism that involves a tendency to act in a manner opposite of one's true feelings. Example: a person who acts conservation but focuses on violence in their behavior.
6. Sublimation: defense mechanism that involves expressing sexual or aggressive behavior through indirect, socially acceptable outlets. Example: aggressive person who plays football.